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英国留学学术性论文的结构详解
发布时间:2018-01-13   
英国环球论文

    相比较普通的Essay来说,学术Essay的写作难度就更大一些。很多刚刚接触Essay的同学并不太了解,也无从下笔。所以英国环球论文小编就为大家带来学术性Essay的写作结构详解。

    1.INTRODUCTION——简介

    简介部分一般回顾一下课题所在的大背景,然后介绍一下本篇essay中的工作内容。

    This essay will deal with the following aspects of the question...

    The aim of this essay is ......

    2. GIVING AN OVERVIEW OF THE ESSAY CONTENT——essay内容综述

    论文有可以有严格的分块,下面这些语句用来介绍论文的结构。这部分也在简介中给出。

    In order to link.... with ...., the background to ... will be briefly outlined.

    The first part of the analysis will examine....

    The second part of this analysis will consider...

    The final level of the analysis consists of...

    3. MAKING A POINT——表达观点

    表达观点时可以使用下面的句式和关键词。这些语句在全文所有部分都可能用到。

    It is clear/ noticeable that...

    It is necessary/ important/ useful/ interesting/to note/point out/ highlight/ emphasise that

    4.EMPHASIS MARKERS——强调用语

    在表达核心观点或重要想法时,不要用“I think”这种模糊不定的句式。下面的三种词性的单词都可以用上。

    形容词: main, crucial, important, significant, key, essential

    名词: focus, element, concept, theory, aspect, part, idea, point, argument, discussion, debate

    动词: to emphasise, to summarise, to focus, to highlight

    示例如下

    The key aspect of this argument is

    The most crucial point made so far

    It is worth noting that

    Another relevant point is that

    5.INTRODUCING A NEW IDEA——介绍新内容

    下面这些用语用在提示读者,下面的内容的中心不再是上段落或者上个句子的内容。使用这些句式会给读者带来更清晰的结构。

    Turning now to the question of

    Bearing in mind the previous points,

    Having considered (X)

    With regard to

    As far as ....... is concerned

    6. HEDGING——不明确的表述

    有时候你对于一个事件或者一个研究的理论不是非常确定,因为目前并没有一个公认的解释,或者只有你发表了看法。如果不是核心内容,有时对一些情况太多确定并不严谨,因此谨慎地表达你的态度。不需要太多确定的话,可以使用下面的单词来表达你的不确定:

    CAN MAY COULD MIGHT WILL WOULD SHALL SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MUST, NEEDN'T

    示例如下:

    It could/might be said that ....

    It seems/appears ...

    It is generally thought/considered ......

    Some/many people think/believe ......

    7.CITING RESEARCH——引用研究

    在介绍其他人的研究结果时,使用下面的语句:

    It has been found that

    Research has shown that

    8. MAKING HYPOTHESES——做假设

    在进行理论解释时,经常会用到理论假设,要注意将假设内容向读者阐述清楚。

    If, then

    Assuming that

    9.STATING CONDITIONS——阐述情况

    Given that

    Provided that

    Granted that

    If it is the case that & then,

    10.GIVING EXAMPLES——举例子

    For example/instance

    In this situation/case

    To illustrate

    11. ADDING INFORMATION——附加信息

    Again/ besides/ equally important/ in addition/ further/ furthermore/ moreover

    It must also be noted/ remembered that

    12. DISCUSSION MARKERS——讨论表述

    On the one hand, on the other hand

    Although it may be true that....however

    Whilst it is generally agreed that

    There exists a contradiction between ..... and

    Those in favour of/ Supporters/Advocates of

    Those opposed to/ Critics of

    13.RE-PHRASING——重新表述

    In other words

    To put it another way

    That is to say

    14. EVALUATIVE LANGUAGE——评价用语

    有时需要对自己的研究或者其他文献中的观点,下面的单词将会有很大帮助。

    Positive adjectives: remarkable, innovative, complex, interesting, profound, comprehensive, powerful, rigorous, systematic, useful, sensitive, reliable, logical,

    Negative adjectives: flawed, modest, unsatisfactory, inadequate, limited, restricted

    Nouns: synthesis, survey, topic, study, review, history, concept, area, theme, overview, analysis, system

    Verbs: explain, discuss, study, present, describe, bring into focus, consider, explore, illuminate, introduce, analyse, constitute

    示例如下:

    The UNO has published an interesting survey...

    It presents a useful concept...

    However, the study is limited in that...

    15. REPEATING——重复

    如果不是必须的话,尽量不要重复之前的观点或者示例,这样会显得文章内容很单薄。在必须引用之前的内容时,可以使用下面的语句:

    To return to an earlier point

    As noted before/above

    16. SUMMING UP——总结

    Briefly, we can say/ it can be said that

    To sum up

    Hence/therefore/accordingly/ consequently

    The evidence suggests, therefore

    In general what this means/ suggests/ indicates is

    It is clear from the above that

    17.CONCLUSION——做结论

    To conclude/In conclusion.

    以上就是英国环球论文小编总结出的英国留学学术性Essay的写作技巧,是否让你有了一个全面并且详细的了解了呢,希望可以帮助到同学们的Essay写作。

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